In several episodes, universal translator was used for decoding what aliens said in real time. In the later shows, the translator was integrated into the communication badges. Now, there is an app for that purpose. Voice Translator by TalirApps understands 71 languages. You speak in your native tongue and the app translates your phrase into another language.
Mr. Geordi Laforge used a device called Personal Access Data Devices or PADDs to punch in the coordinates for the next star system. Other Starfleet personnel used them for fun purposes - to watch videos and listen to music. Sounds familiar.
In the TV show, a tricorder is a handheld device that scans for geological, biological, and meteorological anomalies. Handy! In 2012, Peter Jansen from McMaster University in Ontario built a working prototype that scans for magnetic fields and other interference. And there are lots of other real-world tricorders, too.
Captain Kirk was very skilled with a phaser. We are using something similar and it's known as Dazzler. The directed-energy weapon sends a pulse of electromagnetic radiation to stop someone cold in their tracks.
In the world of Star Trek, it looks like many people are trypanophobic (fear of needles) so there is a gadget, hypospray which was sometimes applied on the neck. Presumably, when used in the neck it delivers the medication intravenously or intra-arterially and when used on the arm it delivers intramuscularly. The hypospray could also be applied through clothing.
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